If you've heard of norovirus, it was likely on the news in the context of cruise ships. While cruise ship outbreaks get a lot of publicity, norovirus, a highly contagious illness that induces severe vomiting and diarrhoea in people who contract it, is responsible for causing 685 million cases of gastroenteritis each year -- the vast majority of them on land.
Have concerns about noro prevented you from booking your first cruise? Are you worried about whether or not you'll come down with it on a sailing you've already got planned? Either way, we're here to tell you why you don't need to fret.
1. Most Norovirus Outbreaks Happen on Land
According to the United States' Centers for Disease Control, nearly 93 percent of reported norovirus outbreaks in America from 2009 to 2012 occurred on land, with more than 62 percent happening in healthcare settings like hospitals and nursing homes. Schools and restaurants are also common places for land-based outbreaks. The remaining 7 percent is listed as "other," meaning cruise ships account for less than 7 percent of all norovirus cases. Cruise ships are required by law to report gastrointestinal outbreaks when they affect more than 3 percent of total passengers and crew aboard any sailing. Conversely, land-based establishments where noro is common are not required to report it, meaning that even though cruise ship outbreaks are less common, they're more frequently reported to the CDC and subsequently covered by media outlets.
2. Cruise Lines Do All They Can to Prevent Norovirus
Obviously cruise lines don't want bad press or unhappy passengers, so they try their hardest to prevent the spread of the virus. Before boarding, each passenger must fill out a health form. Anyone who exhibits symptoms of noro is given an examination before being allowed to embark. Hand sanitiser -- and sometimes hand-washing facilities -- are provided near the entrances to dining venues to encourage people to clean their hands before and after eating. Ships assign crew to frequently disinfect commonly touched areas like countertops and lift buttons, and those who handle and prepare food are given rigorous training to ensure cleanliness. Some ships even have crew serve food at the typically self-service onboard buffets for the first 48 hours -- the amount of time it takes norovirus to incubate if a passenger is infected.
If preventative measures don't work, ships do have onboard medical facilities to diagnose and treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal illness, and sick cruisers are quarantined in an effort to minimise the spread. Additionally, deep-cleaning procedures are employed at the conclusion of any voyage during which an outbreak occurs to prevent future sailings from being impacted.
3. You Have Good Hygiene
Although noro can be spread through contaminated food, the other main way to become ill is through contact with surfaces that have been contaminated and then ingest the infection. We're going to assume that you practice good hygiene by washing your hands after using the bathroom and before eating, covering your face when you cough or sneeze (noro can be transmitted via saliva), and frequently using the hand sanitiser provided by most ships. If our assumption is correct, you have a lot less to worry about.
4. It's Your Holiday
Nobody wants to spend his or her hard-earned holiday time worrying about potential threats. According to the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA), an estimated 23 million people cruised in 2015. The CDC's records list outbreaks on 12 ships in 2015, affecting a total of 1,406 passengers. That means passengers had just a 0.006 percent chance of catching norovirus while sailing. Statistically, it's more likely that you'll have triplets, should you decide to become a parent (0.15 percent chance). With odds like that, take a deep breath, grab a cold drink and relax.
5. You're Informed
Informing yourself is the best way to guard against any potential setbacks that could derail your cruise. Now that you've read this article, check out the CDC's website for more info: